Monthly Archives: August 2011

From the signs of Lailatul Qadr and Supplication on that night

Bismillahi wal Hamdullillah Was Salātu Was Salāmu ‘Alaa Rasūlillahi

When Lailatul Qadr is equivalent to 1000 months (or more than 83 years!) of worship, being familiar with its signs is of great benefit.

It has been authentically narrated upon the authority of Jaabir ibn Abdullah (Radhiyallahu ‘Anhu) who said: the Messenger (ﷺ) said:

Indeed I was shown Lailatul Qadr then I was made to forget it. It is in the last ten nights (of Ramadhān) and it is a bright night, neither hot or cold..the version of Az Zayādi mentions concerning the brightness of the night: “..as though there is in it the type of moon that overpowers the stars (in brightness)..” then in both versions the messenger said: “Devils on that night will not be able to come out until fajr”

(Collected by Imām ibn Khuzaima in his ‘Saheeh’ and declared ‘Sahīh’ by Shaikh Al Albāni in ‘Saheeh ibn Khuzaima 2190)

When Ubay ibn Ka’b was asked on an occasion ‘what are its signs’ he responded by saying “its signs are the signs that the messengers (ﷺ) informed us of. That the sun will rise the following morning having no rays

(collected By Ibn Khuzaima in his ‘Saheeh’ and declared Hasan by itself and ‘Saheeh’ when supported by other than itself by shaikh Al albāni in saheeh ibn Khuzaima  2193)

and some narrations mention that it rises ‘like a bronze disc’ 

From the people of knowledge there are those who say that perhaps the reason for the sun rising without rays is the vast abundance of angels present on earth ascending into the heavens at fajr, obscuring the suns rays.

This is fortified by the statement of the messenger (ﷺ) in the following hadeeth:

Upon the authority of Abu Huraira who said: “Lailatul Qadr is the 27th or the 29th night. Indeed the angels are more abundant upon the earth on that night then the number of stones (upon it).

(Saheeh Ibn Khuzaimah 2194 and declared ‘Saheeh’ by Shaikh Al Albāni)

Supplication on Lailatul Qadr

Upon the Authority of Aisha (Radhiyallahu ‘anhaa) who said:

“I asked:” Oh messenger of Allah! If i am granted success in ascertaining Lailatu Qadr what should i supplicate?

So he said: “You should say: “Oh Allah! Indeed you the one who pardons, you love to pardon, so pardon me” (Allahumma inaka ‘afoowun tuhibul afwa fa’fu ‘anee)

(Collected by Abu Dawūd 3850 and declared: “Saheeh” By Shaikh Al Albāni)

Note: it should be noted that the wording انك عفو كريم… That is common is among the Muslims, the additional word كريم is not established upon the Messenger (ﷺ)

This version of the dua was declared ‘Dhaīf in Dhaīf Al Jaami’ (1175)

Shaikh Albāni mentioned in Silsiltul Ahaadīth As Sahīhah 3337 page 1011: “There occurs in the Sunan At Tirmidhi after the statement ‘Afuw’ the addition ‘Karīm’ this wording has no origin in any of the aforementioned sources (of hadīth) neither is it present anywhere else from those who narrated from her (i.e. Aisha)..”

May Allah grant us success in finding it and establishing good upon it

Wallahu a’lam

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Allaah will surely tear open the sky until He looks at the person from amongst the people of the earth who said it!

There occurs from An-Nisaa’ee (d. 303H) in Amal al-Yawm wal-Laylah, 

The hadeeth of two men from amongst the companions, from the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam):

“Whoever says, ‘Laa illaaha ilallaahu wahdahu la shareekalahu lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa Huwa ‘ala kulli Shay’`in Qadeer’ with a sincere heart, attesting to the truth of that with his tongue, then Allaah will surely tear open the sky until He looks at the person from amongst the people of the earth who said it. And the right of the servant whom Allaah looks at is that He grants him whatever he asked for.”

Shaikh Al Albaani mentions ‘Isnaadun Saheeh’: The hadeeth is mentioned by Ibn Rajab in Kalimatul-Ikhlaas (p. 61)

There Also occurs upon the authority of Abu Huraira (Radhiyallahu ‘anhu) who said that the messenger (Sallallahu alahi wa salam) who said:

“No servant says Laa ilaha illallah sincerely, except that the heavens open up for it and it ascends until it reaches the throne, providing one stays away from the major sins”

Shaikh Naasir Mentions: ‘Isnaadun Hasan’ Kalimatul Ikhlaas P60

Concise Principles in Tafseer and the science of the Qur’aan (Part 5)

Bismillah Was Salaatu Was Salaamu ‘Alaa rasoolillahi,

Ammaa Ba’d,

The origin concerning the revelation of verses in the qur’aan is that its verses were revealed once.

Though it may occur in relation to verses in the Qur’aan (and surahs for that matter) that have more than one reason for revelation, that if the two reasons for revelation are authentic and there is a clear distance in time, as it relates to the two incidents (i.e. that one verse was revealed when the messenger (Sallallahu ‘alahi was Sallam) was living in Makka and the other while he was resident in Madina after the Hijra) the scholars rule that the verse was revealed twice.

The reason for that (they mention) is in order to re-affirm a past ruling and to affirm that the (new) incident falls within the meaning of the verse.

Imaam Zarkashi Mentions:

“An affair may be revealed twice in order to fortify its importance, and to remind of it when its reason re-occurs, fearing it may be forgotten. This is what has been said concerning the revelation of Suratul Faatihah, that it was revealed twice, once in Makka and a second time in Madina…”

(Al Burhaan 1/29)

An example of this is that which occurs concerning the statement of Allah the most high:

“Alif Laam Meem.  The Romans have been defeated…(Suratur Room 1-4)

Upon the authority of Niyaar ibn Mukrim who said:

When Allah revealed:

Alif Laam Meem. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land (the region of Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine) and they, after their defeat will be victorious. Within three to nine years.

When this verse was revealed, the Persians had overpowered the Romans. The Muslims wished that they (The Romans) overpowered the Persians due to the fact that they were both people of the book (i.e. The Muslims and the Roman Christians). Concerning this there occurs the statement of Allah:

“And on that day the believers (Muslims) will rejoice with the help of Allah. He helps whom he wills and he is the All Mighty the Mercy-giver”

But Quraish wished that the Persians were victorious since neither of them were people of scripture or belief in the resurrection.

So when Allah revealed this verse, Abu Bakr went out to regions of Makka shouting:

The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land (the region of Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine) and they after their defeat will be victorious. Within three to nine years…”

So a group from the tribe of Quraish said:”Let us deal with this between us.  Your companion (Muhammad) claims that the Romans will defeat the Persians in a number of years between three and nine, Come let us make a bet upon that! So Abu Bakr said: “Ok!” and this was before the prohibition of Gambling. So Abu Bakr agreed with them to make a bet. They said let us agree upon a time period because Bid’ (the Arabic term used in the verse) is an amount between three and nine so let us name a year that we bet upon. So they agreed upon the sixth year, since it was a middle period between the two periods. So six years passed and they (The Romans) were not victorious. So the pagans took the amount Abu Bakr had placed upon the bet (some narrations mention it was 100 camels) some of the believers reproached Abu Bakr for what he had done, due to the fact that Allah had mentioned (this will occur in) Bid’ years (which refers to a number between three and nine). Then on the seventh year the Romans gained victory over the Persians and many people entered Islaam because of this”

(Collected by Tirmidhi 3194 and declared: Hasan by Sheikh Al Albaani)

There is a narration that indicates that the verse was revealed again in Madina

Imaam At Tirmidhi collects upon the authority of Abu Sa’eed Al khudhri (Radhiyallahu ‘anhu): ”During the (period of) battle of Badr, the romans defeated the Persians (in battle). The believers were happy about this and Allah revealed:

Alif Laam Meem. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land (the region of Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine) and they, after their defeat will be victorious. Within three to nine years. The decision of the matter, before (the defeat) and after (the defeat) is only with Allah. And on that day the believers (Muslims) will rejoice”

(Suratur Ruum 1-4)

So the believers were happy at the victory of the Romans over the Persians”
This then is an example of a verse being revealed more than once. The verse was revealed in Makka before the Hijra then again in Madina some seven years later
Another example of that is the hadeeth related to the revelation of the verse in suratul Israa Vs 85:

They ask you about the soul…

Imaam Bukhaari (7297) and Muslim (2794) collected upon the authority of Ibn Mas’ood who said:

I was walking with the Messenger (Sallallahu ‘Alahi was Sallam) (on an occasion) in the agricultural (area) in madina and he was reclining upon a palm branch stripped of its leaves. He passed by a group of Jews and some of them said: why not ask him (a question) while others among them said: Don’t ask him (anything) for you will hear from him what you will dislike: So they said: “Oh Abul Qaasim: Inform us about the soul? So the messenger stood for a period and raised his head to the heavens and I knew he was receiving revelation then when it passed over he said:

They ask you about the soul; say The Rooh (soul) is (from those things) the knowledge of which is with my lord and of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little” (Israa:85)

Imaam Ibn Katheer mentions about this Hadeeth:

That which is apparent from this wording and is initially taken from this is that the verse is Madinan and that it was revealed when the Jews asked him this question in Madina, though (the reality is that) the surah in its totality is Makkan. And the explanation of this is that it is possible that the surah was revealed in Madina a second time after its initial revelation in Makka…”

(Tafseer Ibn Katheer 3/60)

A note concerning the Makkan and Madinan Surahs

What should be noted here is that there is a common misconception about Makki (Makkan)and Madani (Madinan) Surahs. Many people erroneously believe that the Makkan surah is that which came to the messenger when he was in makka and that the Madani surah is that which was revealed upon him in Madina.

That which the scholars (Ibn Katheer  and others)mention is that the Makkan surah is that surah which was revealed before the Hijra (even if some of its verses were revealed in Madina) and that the Madani Surah is that surah that was revealed after hijra (even if some of its verse were revealed in Makka)

Wallahu a’lam

Concise Principles in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (Part 4)

Concise benefits in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (4)

Bismillah was salaatu was salaamu ‘alaa Rasoolillah

2. It may also occur that one verse may have more than one known authentic sababun nuzool (reason for revelation)

An example of this is that which has occurred concerning the reason for the revelation of the statement of Allah:

“O Prophet! Why do you ban for yourself that which Allah has made lawful for you, seeking to please your wives? And Allah is of forgiving most merciful”

(Suratut Tahreem Vs 1)

Concerning the reason for its revelation there has occurred the following hadeeth:

Upon the authority of Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) who said:

The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa salam) used to consume a drink (made) of honey in the house of zainab bint Jahsh (May Allah be pleased with her) then he would spend time with her. So Hafsah and I agreed that if he came to anyone of us (after being with her) that we would say ‘Have you eaten ‘Maghaafeer’ (the gum of a particular tree, that is sweet to taste but is has a foul smell and is also known to be intoxicating)?’ For indeed I smell upon you the fragrance of Maghaafeer. So he responded no! but I did drink honey with Zainab. I have now sworn (By Allah I will not return to it) so do not inform anyone about this”

(Agreed upon by both Imaamul Bukhaari in his ‘Saheeh’ (4912) an Imaam Muslim in his ‘Saheeh’ (1474))

The scholars mention that the messenger (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) did so due to his dislike of foul smells, particularly one that resembled an intoxicant.

There has also occurred another authentic narration concerning the reason for revelation of the verse that mentions:

Upon the authority of Anas ibn Maalik who mentioned that the messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wa salam) used to have a bondswoman that he would have relations with (a reference to Maariyah the mother of the son of the messenger of Allah Ibraaheem). Aisha and hafsa did not cease addressing him concerning her until he made her haram upon himself so Allah revealed:

“O Prophet! Why do you ban for yourself that which Allah has made lawful for you, seeking to please your wives? And Allah is of forgiving most merciful”

(Suratut Tahreem Vs 1)

(Sunan An Nasaa’ie 7/71,72)

And in the narration of Umar about the occurrence he states:

“The Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi was Salam) said to Hafsa “Do not inform anyone but indeed the mother of Ibraahim is haram upon me” so she (Hafsah) said to him “will you make haram (upon yourself) what Allah has made permissible?” he said “By Allah I will not approach her” thereonafter he did not appraoch her, so she (Hafsah) informed Aisha then Allah revealed:

“Allah has already ordained for you (O men) the dissolution of your oaths (i.e the permissibility of doing so if one see that which is better, with the condition that one carries out the expiation for breaking the oath)…”

(Suratut Tahreem Vs 2)

Another example of this is that which has occurs concerning the reason for revelation of the verse:

“For those who accuse their wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let the testimony of one of them be four testimonies (i.e. He testifies four times) by Allah that he is one of those who speak the truth. And the fifth testimony should be invoking the curse of Allah upon himself if he be of those who tell a lie (against her). But it shall avert the punishment (of stoning to death) from her, if she bears witness four times by Allah, that he is telling a lie and the fifth (testimony) should be that the wrath of Allah be upon her is he (her husband) speaks the truth.”

(Suratun Nur Vs 6-10)

It occurs in a hadeeth collected by Imaamul Bukhaari in his saheeh (3735) from the hadeeth of sahl ibn s’ad who said:

“Indeed ‘Uwaimir (Ibn Abi Abyadh al ‘Ajlaani) approached Aasim ibn Adi and said: “What would you say about a man that finds a man with his wife, does he kill him and thus be killed (for his murder) or what does he do? Ask the messenger of Allah about this on my behalf. So Aasim went to the messenger and he said oh messenger of Allah (and mentioned the issue) but the messenger disliked the issue. So Uwaimir asked him (Aasim) about it and he responded by saying “indeed the messenger of Allah disliked the Issue and dispraised it” so he said “Inded I shall not settle until I ask the messenger of Allah about that (myself)” so he approached the messenger and said “O messenger of Allah! Someone finds a man with his wife, (i.e. having relations) does he kill the man and then be killed (for his murder) or what should he do. So the messenger said “Indeed Allah has revealed (verses from the) Qur’aan concerning you and your wife..”

We see here how the knowledge of the Asbaabun nuzool helps to repel common misconceptions, from them the misconception that stoning is an Islamic punishment prescribed for women only, and then the likes of this verse is quoted. We understand that the verse was revealed in relation to a specific occurrence and does not indicate in any way that concentration with Islamic punishments is upon women alone.

Yet another narration indicates that the verse was revealed concerning a different incident.

Upon the authority of ibn ‘Abaas who said that Hilaal ibn Umayah accused his wife of committing adultery with Shareek ibn Sahmaa So the messenger (Sallallahu alaihi wa salam) said:

” (Establish the) evidence otherwise your back will be punished (i.e you will be flogged for falsely accusing a chaste woman) so he said “Oh messenger of Allah! if one of us sees a man on top of his wife in the middle of the act does he still have to establish the proof?! So the messenger continued to say: “(establish the) proof or your back will be punished” so Umayah said: “By he who sent you with the truth, I am being truthful and Allah will reveal that which frees my back from punishment. Then Jibreel descended and revealed upon him:

“For those who accuse their wives..” to the end of the hadeeth

(Collected by Bukhaari in his ‘Saheeh’ Hadeeth 4747)

This again establishes the point that one ayah may have more than one reason for revelation

Wallahu a’lam

Concise Principles in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (Part 3)

Bismillah wal Hamdullillah was Salaatu was Salaamu a’laa Rasoolillah,

Amma ba’d:

Concise benefits in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (3)

As far as ‘Asbaabun Nuzool’ (reasons for revelation) are concerned then there are a number of issues that should be borne in mind:

1.    It may occur that the sababun Nuzool (reason for revelation) may be one, but more than one verse in the Qur’aan was revealed concerning it.

An example of this is that which was collected by Imaamut Tirmidhi in his Sunan (Saheeh Sunan At Tirmidhi 2419):

Upon the authority of Umm Salamah who said:

“The men participate in battle but the women don’t, and we only have half the inheritance of the men” So Allah ta’ala revealed:

“And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you excel other. For men there is reward for what they have earned and for women there is reward for what they have earned and Ask Allah of his bounty…”

(Suratun Nisaa Vs 32)

Imaamut Tirmidhi mentions:

Mujaahid said: Allah revealed concerning her:

Verily the Muslims men and women, the believers men and women, the men and Women who are obedient to Allah, the men and women who are truthful, the men and women who are patient, the men and women who are humble, the men and women who give charity, the women who guard their chastity, and the women who remember Allah much, Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward (i.e. paradise)”

(Suratul Ahzaab Vs 35)

Both of these authentic narrations establish this occurance as the sababun nuzool for more than one ayah

Another example is that which took place with the messenger as occurs in a narration collected by Ibn Jareer in his tafseer (14/364) upon the authority of Ibn Abaas who said:

“ The Messenger (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa salam) was sitting in the shade of a tree on an occasion when he said: “There shall come to you an individual who will look at you with two Satanic eyes. If he comes then do not speak to him. There did not pass a long period of time except that a blue eyed individual approached so the messenger (Sallallahu ‘alahi wa salam) called him and said “For what reason do you and your companions curse me?” so the man went away and returned with his companions who all swore by Allah that they did not say or do (such things), so much so the messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa salam) left him alone. So Allah the most high revealed:

“They sware by Allah that they said nothing (bad), but in reality they uttered words of disbelief, and they disbelieved after accepting Islaam…”

(Suratut Tawbah  Vs 74)

And Allah continues to describe them in the verse

Imaam Haakim collects a variant version of the same occurance (though the version in Mustadrak mentions the man had blue defective eyes). This narration (2/524/Hadeeth 3795) mentions that Allah revealed:

“On the day when Allah will resurrect them all together (for their account), then they will swear to him as they swear to you. And they think they have something to stand upon. Verily they are liars”

(Suratul Mujaadilah Vs 18)

Thus we see that it is established that more than one verse may be revealed for one occurance

Wallahu A’lam

Concise Principles in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (Part 2)

Concise principles in Tafseer (2)

The ‘Asbaabun Nuzool’ (reasons for revelation) are of two types

1. ‘Sareeh’ (clear and unequivocal)

This is when the companion states ‘the reason for the revelation of such and such a verse is…’ or he mentions an occurrence or a question posed to the messenger then he or she says “…then Allah revealed” or “..so Allah revealed.

Concerning the statement ‘then Allah revealed’ on rare occasions this is mentioned concerning an occurrence that is not the cause for the revelation of the mentioned verse but this is rare. Similarly the statement of a companion ‘we used to hold that such and such a verse was revealed due to this’ while it overwhelms our suspicions that this is the reason for its revelation, that is not always clear cut and those instances and their narrations should be correctly followed up and analysed.

2. ‘Ghair Sareeh’ (Unclear)

This is when a companion says ‘ This verse was revealed concerning such and such…’ this statement could relate to the reason for revelation, but it could also be a reference to the tafseer or explanation of the verse. That is to say, for example ‘this verse was revealed concerning the expiation of a vow’, we understand that the intent is that the subject matter of the verse is such and such.

There is a subtle difference between the first type (Sareeh) and this one. In the first the companion clearly mentions ‘Sababun Nuzooli hadhihil Ayah.. (The reason for the revelation of the ayah is…) while here the companion says: ‘Nazalat Haadihil Ayah fee kadhaa’ (This verse was revealed concerning… the word to consider here is his statement ‘concerning’. Does he intent by this statement the reason for revelation or does he intend merely to discuss and mention its subject matter.

And the examples of these categories of ‘Asbaabun Nuzool’ in the books of tafseer (exegesis of the qur’aan) are many.

Wallahu A’lam

  

Concise Principles in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (Part 1)

Concise benefits in Tafseer (1)

Bismillah Was Salaatu Was Salaamu ‘alaa Rasoolillahi

Ammaa Ba’d:

1. Types of Revelation

Imaamus Suyooti mentions:

Al Ja’bari mentions:

“The Verses of the Qur’aan were revealed in two ways:
 1. That which was revealed without a known cause
2. That which was revealed on the basis of an occurance or question”

(Al Itqaan 1/82)

Thus this second category has what is known as a ‘Sababun nuzool’ (reason for revelation)

The ‘asbaabun nuzool’ (plural) must be reported with an authentic chain of narration for it to be considered.

Though the asbaabun nuzool help us to understand the context of the verse the scholars mention another principle and that is:

‘ Al ‘Ibratu bi ‘Umoomil lafdh laa bi khusoosis sabab’ (meaning that the thing that is taken into consideration is the general nature of the wording of the text, and not only the specific reason it was revealed for)

Thus as Shaikhul islam and others have mentioned the ayah is applicable to anyone whose circumstances resemble that of the one the verse was revealed concerning

Wallahu a’lam

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